clade Stylommatophora

The clade Stylommatophora is a very large group of pulmonate snails and slugs, all terrestrial. Two clades are recognized by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 [Classification and Nomenclature of Gastropod Families. Malacologia
47 (1-2): 1-397]; Elasmognatha and Orthurethra. The remainder of the species are grouped into the “informal group” Sigmurethra. The latter was
shown to be paraphyletc by Wade et al. 2001 [A phylogeny of the land snails (Gastropoda; Pulmonata) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, ser. B, 268 (1465):413-422]. As these names imply, the clades are distinguished based on the position of the ureter pore in the mantle.

clade Elasmognatha

superfamily Athoracophoroidea
family Athoracophoridae – these are the leaf-veined slugs of New Zealand, Australia, and surrounding islands. The Discover Life web site does not list all the genera below. This list and the distributions were taken from Powell, 1979 [New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand].


Aneitea New Zealand
Athoracophorus New Zealand
Palliopodex New Zealand
Pseudaneitea New Zealand
Reflectopallium New Zealand
Triboniophorus Australia, New Guinea

superfamily Succineoidea
family Succineidae – these snails have a very thin shell with a large aperature. They are usually found near water.


Catinella North America, Hawaiin Ids., Samoa, Raotunga Isl., Costa Rica, Europe
Homalonyx Venezuela, Bolivia
Neosuccinea Japan
Novisuccinea North America, Japan
Omalonyx Mexico, Dominica, Trinidad, South America
Oxyloma North America, Europe, North Africa, Afganistan, Mexico, Caribbean, Argentina,
Trinidad & Tobago, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Japan, Korea, China, Rusdsia,
Armenia, Turkey
Papusuccinea New Guinea, Solomon Ids., New Hebrides
Quickella Europe, Florida
Quickia Seychelles
Succinea worldwide


clade Orthurethra

This clade is characterized by the placement of the pore of ureter
opening into mantle cavity near the anterior margin of lung after the ureter
passes forward from anterior kidney margin. Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 [Classification and Nomenclature of Gastropod Families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397] recognize five superfamilies.

Superfamily Partuloidea

Family Partulidae

Family Draparnaudiidae

Superfamily Achatinelloidea

Family Achatinellidae

Superfamily Cochlicopoidea

Family Cochlicopidae

Family Amastridae

Superfamily Pupilloidea

Family Pupillidae

Family Argnidae

Family Chondrinidae

Family Lauriidae

Family Orculidae

Family Pleurodiscidae

Family Pyramidulidae

Family Spelaeodiscidae

Family Strobilopsidae

Family Valloniidae

Family Vertiginidae

Superfamily Enoidea

Family Enidae

Family Cerastidae



informal group sigmurethra

Even though this is a paraphyletic group, there are some monophyletic
clades contained within. Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 [Classification and Nomenclature of Gastropod Families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397] recognize 21 superfamilies within the sigmurethra. These are all considered monophyletic. In addition, seven of these superfamilies are grouped into a clade called the “Limacoid clade” reflecting their presumed monophyly.

Superfamily Clausilioidea

Family Clausiliidae

Superfamily Orthalicoidea

Family Orthalicidae

Family Cerionidae

Family Coelociontidae

Family Megaspiridae

Family Placostylidae

Family Urocoptidae

Superfamily Achatinoidea

Family Achatinidae

Family Ferussaciidae

Family Micractaeonidae

Family Subulinidae

Superfamily Aillyoidea

Family Aillyidae

Superfamily Testacelloidea

Family Testacellidae

Family Oleacinidae

Family Spiraxidae

Superfamily Papillodermatoidea

Family Papillodermatidae

Superfamily Streptaxoidea

Family Streptaxidae

Superfamily Rhytidoidea

Family Rhytididae

Family Chlamydephoridae

Family Haplotrematidae

Family Scolodontidae

Superfamily Acavoidea

Family Acavidae

Family Caryodidae

Family Dorcasiidae

Family Macrocyclidae

Family Megomphicidae

Family Strophocheilidae

Superfamily Punctoidea

Family Punctidae

Family Charopidae

Family Cystopeltidae

Family Discidae

Family Endodontidae

Family Helicodiscidae

Family Oreohelicidae

Family Thyrophorellidae

Superfamily Sagdoidea

Family Sagdidae

“‘Limacoid clade”‘

Superfamily Staffordioidea

Family Staffordiidae

Superfamily Dyakioidea

Family Dyakiidae

Superfamily Gastrodontoidea

Family Gastrodontidae

Family Chronidae

Family Euconulidae

Family Oxychilidae

Family Pristilomatidae

Family Trochomorphidae

Superfamily Parmacelloidea

Family Parmacellidae

Family Milacidae

Family Trigonochlamydidae

Superfamily Zonitoidea

Family Zonitidae

Superfamily Helicarionoidea

Family Helicarionidae

Family Ariophantidae

Family Urocyclidae

Superfamily Limacoidea

Family Limacidae

Family Agriolimacidae

Family Boettgerillidae

Family Vitrinidae

end of “‘Limacoid clade”‘

Superfamily Arionoidea

Family Arionidae

Family Anadenidae

Family Ariolimacidae

Family Binneyidae

Family Oopeltidae

Family Philomycidae

Superfamily Helicoidea

Family Helicidae

Family Bradybaenidae

Family Camaenidae

Family Cepolidae

Family Cochlicellidae

Family Elonidae

Family Epiphragmophoridae

Family Halolimnohelicidae

Family Helicodontidae

Family Helminthoglyptidae

Family Humboldtianidae

Family Hygromiidae

Family Monadeniidae

Family Pleurodontidae

Family Polygyridae

Family Sphincterochilidae

Family Thysanophoridae

Family Trissexodontidae

Family Xanthonychidae